[Association of Urinary Phenol Concentration and Blood Biochemical Indices in Coke Oven Workers]

[Association of Urinary Phenol Concentration and Blood Biochemical Indices in Coke Oven Workers]

Objective: To explore the association of the concentration of urinary phenols and blood biochemical indices in coke oven workers. Methods: From April to May 2019, we examined 771 workers ‘coke workers’ employees from a Coke power plant in Taiyuan City and classified in a group exposed to benzene (n = 402) and the control group ( n = 369) according to their exposures to benzene in the workplace and concentrations of uophenol. All subjects were interviewed in the face-to-face using a questionnaire, including the name, age (year), sex, smoking and beverage habits, personal professional history, The working length (year) and professional protection, etc. Post-Shift urine samples detected a chromatography ionization detector in hydrogen gas chromatography.

The blood coming from fasting was drawn in the morning and centrifuged, the separate serum was detected the following elements using an automatic blood biochemistry analyzer. Covariance and multiple linear regression were used to test the association of urinary phenol concentration and the levels of all blood biochemical indices. Results: Subjects were mainly men (n = 719, 93.3%), with an average age of (42.3 ± 8.2.2) years and an average working length of (20.6 ± 8, 2.2) years.

Compared to the control group, the group exposed to benzene was significantly different from the age, life of the years, gender, smoking and beverage habits (p <0.05). The median concentration (interquartile interval) of the urinary phenol was 6.00 (0.00-33.00) μg / ml in the group exposed to benzene, which was significantly greater than that of the control group (p <0.05) . The analysis of covariance indicated that fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and high density cholesterol in the group exposed to benzene were considerably reduced in relation to the control group, but serum creatinine, serum acid uric and the triglycerides were considerably increased (p <0.05).

 

Castration aggravates insulin resistance, reduces immune function and improve the quality of life of prostate cancer patients

Objective: To study the influence of the castration on insulin resistance, the quality of life and the immune function of patients with prostate cancer (PCA).

Methods: A total of 57 PCA patients has definitely diagnosed via prostate biopsy suffered bilateral orchiectomy. No patient had the story of sweet diabetes before the operation. Hemoglobin, the number of leukocytes, the number of platelets, albumin and alkaline phosphatase in the blood before the operation and 1 year after the operation were analyzed using a complete biochemistry analyzer and neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet / lymphocyte ratio (PLR)) in the peripheral blood were calculated.

Results: Serum (T) and free testosterone testosterone (FT) levels in PCA patients have decreased considerably at 1 month after castration. Compared to those before use, serum t and ft levels have been significantly reduced to 1, 2, 4 and 8 months, as well as 1 year after castration. Triglyceride levels (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were gradually raised with the extension of time after the operation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) displayed an apparent three-month trend after surgical castration. The results of the flow cytometry indicated that the levels of differentiation clusters (CD) 4+ and CD4 + / CD8 + have been markedly marked while that of CD8 + has been significantly high compared to Those before castration (p <0.05) after the castration, both of the blood to fast the insulin of glucose and fasting have evidently increased in patients (p <0.05). The blood glucose and insulin of the 2 hp postprandial blood were identified separately at 1 month after castration (p <0.05). The insulin resistance index has been increased persistently and evidently (p <0.05).

 [Association of Urinary Phenol Concentration and Blood Biochemical Indices in Coke Oven Workers]
[Association of Urinary Phenol Concentration and Blood Biochemical Indices in Coke Oven Workers]

Establishment of reference intervals of biochemical analytes for healthy Chinese volunteers during the clinical pharmacology test screening process

OBJECTIVE: Laboratory reference intervals (RIS) play a key role in clinical pharmacology tests, both in the screening process and in the assessment of drug safety. However, rising rises to be limited to the general population and risk data for the trial population are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriate rises to use during the projection of a defined special sub-group of a healthy Chinese population in clinical pharmacology tests.

Methods: A total of 773 healthy Chinese volunteers (552 men and 221 women) who sought to participate in clinical pharmacology tests were included in this study. Sixteen different biochemical analytes were measured by a Beckman Coulter Unicel DXC 800 automatic analyzer. The RIS was partitioned by sex using the Harris and Boyd method and calculated using a non-parametric method.
Results: The RIS of 16 biochemical analytes for healthy Chinese volunteers during the clinical pharmacology test screening process are reported in this study. Notable differences between the RIS in this study and RIS provided by our existing laboratory or literature were also observed. Compared to our institutional risks, the newly established risks were more applicable to the current trial population.
Conclusions: The RIS of this study can serve as a powerful clinical tool in the clinical pharmacology testing process. However, these rises should be re-verified if a condition changes. The results also highlight the importance of restoring risks that are more applicable to local criteria populations.

Rhodamine B

abx082254-5g 5 g
EUR 175

Rhodamine B

TBP03900 6X100mg
EUR 257

Rhodamine B [HRP]

DAGA-060H 1mg
EUR 1209

Rhodamine B [BSA]

DAGA-072B 1mg
EUR 780

Rhodamine B [KLH]

DAGA-078K 1mg
EUR 1079

Rhodamine B base

GT5360-100G 100 g
EUR 158

Rhodamine B base

GT5360-10G 10 g
EUR 50

Rhodamine B base

GT5360-25G 25 g
EUR 70

Rhodamine B base

GT5360-50G 50 g
EUR 102

Octadecyl rhodamine B

60033 10MG
EUR 281
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 10MG

Rhodamine B ELISA Kit

DEIANJ26 96T
EUR 866
Description: The Rhodamine B ELISA Kit is an immunoassay for the quantitative and sensitive screening of Rhodamine B in food samples such as chili sauce and chili powder, etc.

Rhodamine B (C.I. 45170)

GT7006-100G 100 g
EUR 62

Rhodamine B (C.I. 45170)

GT7006-250G 250 g
EUR 94

Rhodamine B (C.I. 45170)

GT7006-25G 25 g
EUR 46

Rhodamine B (RDB) Antibody

20-abx179008
  • EUR 439.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1274.00
  • EUR 606.00
  • EUR 342.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Rhodamine B, hexyl ester, perchlorate

22211 10 mg
EUR 115

OVA Conjugated Rhodamine B (RDB)

4-CPO062Ge21
  • EUR 413.60
  • EUR 214.00
  • EUR 1276.00
  • EUR 492.00
  • EUR 884.00
  • EUR 340.00
  • EUR 3040.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Pan-species Rhodamine B expressed in: E.coli

Rhodamine B (RDB) Protein (OVA)

20-abx651895
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 258.00
  • EUR 1720.00
  • EUR 690.00
  • EUR 425.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Rhodamine B solution, 0.2% in isopropanol

GT1789-100ML 100 ml
EUR 50

Rhodamine B solution, 0.2% in isopropanol

GT1789-500ML 500 ml
EUR 86

HCV NS4 recombinant antigen NS4a+b, Rhodamine

00116-V-R-01mg 0,1 mg
EUR 267.5
Description: HCV NS4 recombinant antigen NS4a+b a.a 1658 to a.a 1863 of HCV polyprotein, 19 kDa. Rhodamine conjugate.

HCV NS4 recombinant antigen NS4a+b, Rhodamine

00116-V-R-1000ug 1000 ug
EUR 1282.5
Description: HCV NS4 recombinant antigen NS4a+b a.a 1658 to a.a 1863 of HCV polyprotein, 19 kDa. Rhodamine conjugate.

Fmoc-b,b-diphenyl-Ala-OH

B-2725.0250 250.0mg
EUR 139
Description: Sum Formula: C30H25NO4; CAS# [201484-50-6]

Fmoc-b,b-diphenyl-Ala-OH

B-2725.1000 1.0g
EUR 357
Description: Sum Formula: C30H25NO4; CAS# [201484-50-6]

Fmoc-b,b-diphenyl-Ala-OH

B-2725.5000 5.0g
EUR 1336
Description: Sum Formula: C30H25NO4; CAS# [201484-50-6]

HCV type a+b Nonstructural Protein 4 [Rhodamine]

DAG1423 100 µg
EUR 810

Rhodamine 800

HY-101876 50mg
EUR 173

Rhodamine 6G

HY-D0309 10mM/1mL
EUR 126

Rhodamine 123

HY-D0816 25mg
EUR 173

Rhodamine 110

HY-D0817 100mg
EUR 147

Rhodamine Phalloidin

HY-K0903 300T
EUR 843

Rhodamine 123

abx082227-5mg 5 mg
EUR 217

Rhodamine antibody

10C-CR2050M1 500 ug
EUR 446
Description: Mouse monoclonal Rhodamine antibody

Ubiquitin-Rhodamine

6411-50
EUR 544

Fmoc-b-Ala-OH

B-1025.0005 5.0g
EUR 115
Description: Sum Formula: C18H17NO4; CAS# [35737-10-1]

Fmoc-b-Ala-OH

B-1025.0025 25.0g
EUR 236
Description: Sum Formula: C18H17NO4; CAS# [35737-10-1]

Fmoc-b-Ala-OH

B-1025.0100 100.0g
EUR 635
Description: Sum Formula: C18H17NO4; CAS# [35737-10-1]

Fmoc-b-Ala-OPfp

B-1765.0005 5.0g
EUR 236
Description: Sum Formula: C24H16F5NO4; CAS# [149303-38-8]

Fmoc-b-Ala-OPfp

B-1765.0025 25.0g
EUR 841
Description: Sum Formula: C24H16F5NO4; CAS# [149303-38-8]

Recombinant Hepatitis C Virus NS4 a+b, Rhodamine Labeled

7-07327 100µg Ask for price

Recombinant Hepatitis C Virus NS4 a+b, Rhodamine Labeled

7-07328 500µg Ask for price

Recombinant Hepatitis C Virus NS4 a+b, Rhodamine Labeled

7-07329 1000µg Ask for price

Hepatitis C Virus NS4 a+b, Rhodamine Labeled Protein

20-abx260348
  • EUR 1247.00
  • EUR 467.00
  • EUR 1970.00
  • 0.5 mg
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg

Fmoc-b-cyclohexyl-Ala-OH

B-1975.0001 1.0g
EUR 126
Description: Sum Formula: C24H27NO4; CAS# [135673-97-1]

Fmoc-b-cyclohexyl-Ala-OH

B-1975.0005 5.0g
EUR 418
Description: Sum Formula: C24H27NO4; CAS# [135673-97-1]

Fmoc-b-cyclohexyl-Ala-OH

B-1975.0025 25.0g
EUR 1192
Description: Sum Formula: C24H27NO4; CAS# [135673-97-1]

Fmoc-b-cyclopropyl-Ala-OH

B-2905.0001 1.0g
EUR 345
Description: Sum Formula: C21H21NO4; CAS# [214750-76-2]

Fmoc-b-cyclopropyl-Ala-OH

B-2905.0005 5.0g
EUR 1301
Description: Sum Formula: C21H21NO4; CAS# [214750-76-2]

HCV Nucleocapsid [Rhodamine]

DAG1390 100 µg
EUR 810

Rhodamine-DHPE: (5mg)

60026 5MG
EUR 226
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 5MG

Rhodamine phalloidin 300u

00027 300
EUR 345
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 300

Rhodamine 110 phalloidin

00032 300ST
EUR 345
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 300ST

Rhodamine 123 (chloride)

C3140-10 10 mg
EUR 112
Description: Rhodamine 123 is a fluorescent tracer dye used as substrate for P-glycoprotein.Fluorescent tracer dyes represent a class of sub-cellular probes allowing the examination of cellular processes in real-time with minimal impact upon such processes.

Rhodamine 123 (chloride)

C3140-100 100 mg
EUR 398
Description: Rhodamine 123 is a fluorescent tracer dye used as substrate for P-glycoprotein.Fluorescent tracer dyes represent a class of sub-cellular probes allowing the examination of cellular processes in real-time with minimal impact upon such processes.

Rhodamine 123 (chloride)

C3140-25 25 mg
EUR 163
Description: Rhodamine 123 is a fluorescent tracer dye used as substrate for P-glycoprotein.Fluorescent tracer dyes represent a class of sub-cellular probes allowing the examination of cellular processes in real-time with minimal impact upon such processes.

Biotin antibody (rhodamine)

60R-1004 1 mg
EUR 206
Description: Biotin antibody (rhodamine)

Streptavidin protein (Rhodamine)

65C-CE0311 1 mg
EUR 275
Description: Purified homogeneous preparation of rhodamine conjugated Streptavidin protein

Recombinant hSUMO2-Rhodamine

6414-50
EUR 544

Absolute Mag Rhodamine B Fluorescent Iron Oxide Nanoparticles, 10 nm

WNM-X061 2 mL
EUR 689

Fmoc-b-(2-thienyl)-Ala-OH

B-1665.0001 1.0g
EUR 284
Description: Sum Formula: C22H19NO4S; CAS# [130309-35-2]

Fmoc-b-(2-thienyl)-Ala-OH

B-1665.0005 5.0g
EUR 1046
Description: Sum Formula: C22H19NO4S; CAS# [130309-35-2]

Fmoc-b-(3-pyridyl)-Ala-OH

B-2005.0001 1.0g
EUR 393
Description: Sum Formula: C23H20N2O4; CAS# [175453-07-3]

Fmoc-b-(3-pyridyl)-Ala-OH

B-2005.0005 5.0g
EUR 1482
Description: Sum Formula: C23H20N2O4; CAS# [175453-07-3]

Fmoc-b-cyclohexyl-D-Ala-OH

B-2345.0001 1.0g
EUR 151
Description: Sum Formula: C24H27NO4; CAS# [144701-25-7]

Fmoc-b-cyclohexyl-D-Ala-OH

B-2345.0005 5.0g
EUR 515
Description: Sum Formula: C24H27NO4; CAS# [144701-25-7]

Fmoc-b-cyclohexyl-D-Ala-OH

B-2345.0025 25.0g
EUR 1965
Description: Sum Formula: C24H27NO4; CAS# [144701-25-7]

Fmoc-b-(3-benzothienyl)-Ala-OH

B-2830.0001 1.0g
EUR 212
Description: Sum Formula: C26H21NO4S; CAS# [177966-60-8]

Fmoc-b-(3-benzothienyl)-Ala-OH

B-2830.0005 5.0g
EUR 756
Description: Sum Formula: C26H21NO4S; CAS# [177966-60-8]

Fmoc-b-cyclopropyl-D-Ala-OH

B-2915.0001 1.0g
EUR 587
Description: Sum Formula: C21H21NO4; CAS# [170642-29-2]

Fmoc-b-cyclopropyl-D-Ala-OH

B-2915.0005 5.0g
EUR 2255
Description: Sum Formula: C21H21NO4; CAS# [170642-29-2]

Fmoc-b-(2-quinolyl)-Ala-OH

B-3165.0250 250.0mg
EUR 381
Description: Sum Formula: C27H22N2O4; CAS# [214852-56-9]

Fmoc-b-(2-quinolyl)-Ala-OH

B-3165.1000 1.0g
EUR 1070
Description: Sum Formula: C27H22N2O4; CAS# [214852-56-9]

Fmoc-b-azido-Aib-OH · BHA

B-4530.0001 1.0g
EUR 705
Description: Sum Formula: C19H18N4O4·C13H13N; CAS# [1926163-90-7] net

Fmoc-b-(3-pyridyl)-D-Ala-OH

B-2040.0001 1.0g
EUR 273
Description: Sum Formula: C23H20N2O4; CAS# [142994-45-4]

Fmoc-b-(3-pyridyl)-D-Ala-OH

B-2040.0005 5.0g
EUR 998
Description: Sum Formula: C23H20N2O4; CAS# [142994-45-4]

Fmoc-b-(2-thienyl)-D-Ala-OH

B-2120.0001 1.0g
EUR 309
Description: Sum Formula: C22H19NO4S; CAS# [201532-42-5]

Fmoc-b-(2-thienyl)-D-Ala-OH

B-2120.0005 5.0g
EUR 1143
Description: Sum Formula: C22H19NO4S; CAS# [201532-42-5]

Fmoc-b-(2-quinolyl)-D-Ala-OH

B-3170.0250 250.0mg
EUR 441
Description: Sum Formula: C27H22N2O4; CAS# [214852-58-1]

Fmoc-b-(2-quinolyl)-D-Ala-OH

B-3170.1000 1.0g
EUR 1276
Description: Sum Formula: C27H22N2O4; CAS# [214852-58-1]

Fmoc-b-(3-benzothienyl)-D-Ala-OH

B-3435.0001 1.0g
EUR 334
Description: Sum Formula: C26H21NO4S; CAS# [177966-61-9]

Fmoc-b-(3-benzothienyl)-D-Ala-OH

B-3435.0005 5.0g
EUR 1240
Description: Sum Formula: C26H21NO4S; CAS# [177966-61-9]

Fmoc-b-(1-piperazinyl)-Ala(Boc)-OH

B-3725.0250 250.0mg
EUR 383
Description: Sum Formula: C27H33N3O6; CAS# [313052-20-9]

Fmoc-b-(1-piperazinyl)-Ala(Boc)-OH

B-3725.1000 1.0g
EUR 1088
Description: Sum Formula: C27H33N3O6; CAS# [313052-20-9]

Fmoc-b-azido-D-Aib-OH · BHA

B-4535.0001 1.0g
EUR 705
Description: Sum Formula: C19H18N4O4·C13H13N; CAS# [1926163-91-8] net

Fmoc-Lys(For)-OH

B-1865.0001 1.0g
EUR 115
Description: Sum Formula: C22H24N2O5; CAS# [201004-23-1]

Fmoc-Lys(For)-OH

B-1865.0005 5.0g
EUR 368
Description: Sum Formula: C22H24N2O5; CAS# [201004-23-1]

Fmoc-Lys(For)-OH

B-1865.0025 25.0g
EUR 1360
Description: Sum Formula: C22H24N2O5; CAS# [201004-23-1]

Fmoc-Trp(For)-OH

B-3710.0001 1.0g
EUR 115
Description: Sum Formula: C27H22N2O5; CAS# [152338-45-9]

Fmoc-Trp(For)-OH

B-3710.0005 5.0g
EUR 368
Description: Sum Formula: C27H22N2O5; CAS# [152338-45-9]

Holder for Plasmid Midi, Maxi and Maxi plus, Ion Exchange column

FAPDE-holder-for-ion-exchange 1 prep
EUR 158

EZClick? Palmitoylated Protein Assay Kit (FACS/Microscopy), Red Fluorescence

K416-100
EUR 490

EZClick? Stearoylated Protein Assay Kit (FACS/Microscopy), Red Fluorescence

K418-100
EUR 490

EZClick? Palmitoylated Protein Assay Kit (FACS/Microscopy), Green Fluorescence

K452-100
EUR 490

EZClick? Stearoylated Protein Assay Kit (FACS/Microscopy), Green Fluorescence

K453-100
EUR 490

EZClick? Myristoylated Protein Assay Kit (FACS/Microscopy), Green Fluorescence

K497-100
EUR 490

Absolute Mag Amine Dextran Magnetic Particles, Fluorescent Rhodamine B, 35 nm

WHM-P005 0.5 mL, 1 mL Ask for price

Absolute Mag Carboxyl Dextran Magnetic Particles, Fluorescent Rhodamine B, 35 nm

WHM-P013 2 mL
EUR 1188

Recombinant (E.Coli) Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS4 a+b, Rhodamine Labeled

RP-484 50 ug
EUR 286

Fmoc-Asn(GlcNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-2480.0100 100.0mg
EUR 587
Description: Sum Formula: C33H37N3O13; CAS# [131287-39-3]

Fmoc-Asn(GlcNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-2480.0250 250.0mg
EUR 1143
Description: Sum Formula: C33H37N3O13; CAS# [131287-39-3]

Fmoc-N-(N-b-Boc-aminoethyl)-Gly-OH

B-3285.0001 1.0g
EUR 454
Description: Sum Formula: C24H28N2O6; CAS# [141743-15-9]

Fmoc-N-(N-b-Boc-aminoethyl)-Gly-OH

B-3285.0005 5.0g
EUR 1698
Description: Sum Formula: C24H28N2O6; CAS# [141743-15-9]

Fmoc-Ser(GlcNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-3865.0025 25.0mg
EUR 265
Description: Sum Formula: C32H36N2O13; CAS# [160067-63-0]

Fmoc-Ser(GlcNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-3865.0100 100.0mg
EUR 735
Description: Sum Formula: C32H36N2O13; CAS# [160067-63-0]

Fmoc-Ser(GlcNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-3865.0250 250.0mg
EUR 1438
Description: Sum Formula: C32H36N2O13; CAS# [160067-63-0]

Fmoc-Ser(GalNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-4235.0025 25.0mg
EUR 265
Description: Sum Formula: C32H36N2O13; CAS# [1676104-71-4]

Fmoc-Ser(GalNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-4235.0100 100.0mg
EUR 735
Description: Sum Formula: C32H36N2O13; CAS# [1676104-71-4]

Fmoc-Ser(GalNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-4235.0250 250.0mg
EUR 1438
Description: Sum Formula: C32H36N2O13; CAS# [1676104-71-4]

Fmoc-Thr(GalNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-4240.0025 25.0mg
EUR 277
Description: Sum Formula: C33H38N2O13; CAS# [133575-43-6]

Fmoc-Thr(GalNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-4240.0100 100.0mg
EUR 770
Description: Sum Formula: C33H38N2O13; CAS# [133575-43-6]

Fmoc-Thr(GalNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-4240.0250 250.0mg
EUR 1510
Description: Sum Formula: C33H38N2O13; CAS# [133575-43-6]

Fmoc-Thr(GlcNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-4245.0025 25.0mg
EUR 277
Description: Sum Formula: C33H38N2O13; CAS# [160168-40-1]

Fmoc-Thr(GlcNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-4245.0100 100.0mg
EUR 770
Description: Sum Formula: C33H38N2O13; CAS# [160168-40-1]

Fmoc-Thr(GlcNAc(Ac)3-b-D)-OH

B-4245.0250 250.0mg
EUR 1510
Description: Sum Formula: C33H38N2O13; CAS# [160168-40-1]

LC3A Rhodamine 110, CF

PR15106CF 50 ug
EUR 753

Rhodamine 6G (C.I. 45160)

GT5023-100G 100 g
EUR 90

Rhodamine 6G (C.I. 45160)

GT5023-25G 25 g
EUR 49

Rhodamine 6G (C.I. 45160)

GT5023-5G 5 g
EUR 41

Streptavidin-Rhodamine (TRITC) conjugate

20368 0.5 mg
EUR 202

Rhodamine 110 (high purity)

80103 25MG
EUR 88
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 25MG

Protein A antibody (rhodamine)

60C-CF0602 1 mg
EUR 117
Description: Goat polyclonal Protein A antibody (rhodamine) conjugated

Fmoc-b-(7-methoxy-coumarin-4-yl)-Ala-OH

B-3740.0500 500.0mg
EUR 345
Description: Sum Formula: C28H23NO7; CAS# [524698-40-6]

Two national dewater cats have been presented with anorexia and dehydration after the ingestion of caramelized onions. The main conclusions of a CBC (AVIA 2120), serum biochemistry and urine analysis included false and marked leukocytosis with basophil (Baso) and peroxidase channel numbers, normal number of manual leukocytes, Light and non-regenerative anemia with divergences between automated and the manual number of reticulocytes, an abundance of great Heinz bodies (HBS) and very irregular spatterngrams. The housing 1 has also demonstrated a concentration of high average corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC) and discrepancing between RBC hemoglobin indices.

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